Angola. Agricultural Biotechnology Annual Лис. 21, 2016
Angola currently does not allow the use of agricultural biotechnology in production, and imports containing genetically engineered components are limited to food aid. In December 2014, the Council of Ministers approved Decree No. 92/04 as a provisional measure until the establishment of a comprehensive National Biosafety System capable of properly controlling the importation, entry, use and eventual production of Genetically Engineered (GE) organisms in the country.
SECTION I: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Agriculture accounts for 12% of Angola's US$102 billion GDP and provides employment, both formal and informal, for more than two-thirds of Angolans, mostly at subsistence levels. Prior to the 1975-2002 civil war, Angola was a major exporter of coffee, sisal, sugar cane, banana and cotton, and self-sufficient in all food crops except wheat. The civil war disrupted agricultural production and displaced millions of people. Angola currently imports more than half of its food, with some estimates putting the figure as high as 90%. Angola is United States' fifth largest market for poultry products in the world, and the third largest market in Africa for all agricultural exports.
Angola has the resources to be one of the leading agricultural countries in Africa, as its diverse and fertile ecology can host a variety of crops and livestock. However, the country currently only cultivates 10% of its 58 million hectares agricultural land available. An estimated 90% of farms in Angola are small to medium in size and are used mainly in communal ways for subsistence farming. The agricultural commodities produced include cassava, bananas, potatoes, corn, sweet potatoes, citrus and pineapples.
In recent years the government has attempted to diversify the economy by investing in reconstruction of the country's infrastructure, much of which was destroyed during the 1975-2002 civil war. Since 2005, the Angolan government has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the European Union to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Agriculture, highly developed before the civil war, is another area of economy diversification prioritized by government, to tackle the fall in the price of oil.
In December 2014, the Council of Ministers approved Decree No. 92/04, limiting the use of biotechnology products to food aid usage, and restricting any production of GE products in Angola. This Decree stated that it would serve as a provisional measure until the establishment of a comprehensive National Biosafety System capable of properly controlling the importation, entry, use and eventual production of genetically engineered organisms in the country.
SECTION II: PLANT AND ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
CHAPTER 1: PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
PART A: PRODUCTION AND TRADE
(a) PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Currently, there is not any GE product development taking place in Angola.
(b) COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION
Currently, there is not any GE commercial production taking place in Angola.
Angola does not allow imports of GE seeds and grains except for Food Aid.
(e) FOOD AID
Imports of genetically engineered grains for food aid must comply with the following rules, based on the recommendations of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC):
i. Before shipment of the GE product, the importing company must obtain a written authorization from the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development;
ii. All imports of GE food aid in the form of grain or seeds must be milled shortly after importation and before distribution to beneficiaries, in order to avoid contamination of local varieties with GE events.
(f) TRADE BARRIERS
Post has not identified any additional biotechnology-related trade barriers that may negatively affect U.S. exports, nor potential to do so.
PART B: POLICY
(a) REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
In December 2014, the Council of Ministers approved Decree No. 92/04, limiting the use of biotechnology products to food aid usage, and restricting any production of GE products in Angola. This Decree stated that it would serve as a provisional measure until the establishment of a comprehensive National Biosafety System capable of properly controlling the importation, entry, use and eventual production of GE organisms in the country.
No plants or crops have been approved or registered in Angola for cultivation, imports or exports.
(c) STACKED EVENT APPROVALS
(d) FIELD TESTING
Angola does not allow public and private sector to pursue research of GE crops.
(e) INNOVATIVE BIOTECHNOLOGIES
Currently, no compulsory labeling of GE products or food containing GE products is necessary.
(h) MONITORING AND TESTINGNot Applicable
(i) LOW LEVEL PRESENCE POLICY
There is currently no low level presence policy in Angola.
(j) ADDITIONAL REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
(k) INTELECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
(l) CARTAGENA PROTOCOL RATIFICATION
The National Assembly of Angola ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in 2002, based on the precautionary principle in relation to the introduction, release and use of genetically modified organisms.
(m) INTERNATIONAL TREATIES/FORA
Angola is a signatory member inter alia of:
- The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization (WTO-SPS)
- Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex)
Angola works with:
- International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)
However, Angola has not taken an active role in discussions related to biotechnology in these fora.
(n) RELATED ISSUES
There are no other issues related to plant biotechnology that are not captured under the current headings.
PART C: MARKETING
(a) PUBLIC/PRIVATE OPINIONS
Most people in Angola are not aware about the technology. However, there is a wide variety of opinion on this matter among scientist, researchers and the government.
(a) MARKET ACCEPTANCE/ STUDIES
If any GE crop seed become available, post does not foresee any rejection from the commercial farmers, as the farmers have requested this technology for a long time. Post is not aware of any marketing studies on GE products conducted in Angola.
CHAPTER 2: ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Currently, there is not any GE animal development or commercial production taking place in Angola. Angola also does not have any regulations regarding the import of GE animals, livestock clones, or animal products.