Highlights

For Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, MY 2016/17 (October 2016 to September 2017) total rice production (for all four countries) is estimated to fall 3.7 percent to 4 million metric tons (MMT) on lower Cote d ’Ivoirian production which was affected by poor rainfall. MY 2017/18 rice production is projected to rebound to 4.4 MMT assuming good weather in all four countries. MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18 rice imports are expected to rise one and 6.25 percent to 2.8 and 2.925 MMT on strong demand.

I. Executive Summary

For Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, MY 2016/17 (October 2016 to September 2017) total rice production (for all four countries) is estimated to fall 3.7 percent to 4 million metric tons (MMT) on lower Cote d ’Ivoirian production which was affected by poor rainfall. MY 2017/18 rice production is projected to rebound to 4.4 MMT assuming good weather in all four countries. For MY 2016/17, Mali is the top rice producer (1.8 MMT) followed by Cote d’Ivoire (1.335 MMT), Senegal (642,000 MT), and Burkina Faso (250,000 MT). MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18 rice imports are expected to rise one and 6.25 percent to 2.8 and 2.925 MMT on continued strong demand. Most countries in West Africa import rice to meet their food security needs. Large fluctuations in international prices can affect buying patterns, although demand is growing as more consumers shift from traditional grains such as millet to rice.

Since 2015, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which includes most West African countries, adopted a common external tariff (CET) of 10 percent for rice imports from non-ECOWAS countries. Although to date no uniform sanitary and phytosanitary standards have been agreed to or implemented on a regional level, most members follow international guidelines recommended by the International Plant Protection Council and Codex.

II. Production

MY 2016/17 (October 2016 to September 2017) rice production for the West African is estimated at 6.09 million tons, a 1.5 percent decrease compared to the previous year. Rice production in Cote d’Ivoire, Mauritania, and Gambia is projected to decrease 27 percent, 20 percent, and 28 percent, while rice production in Mali and Burkina Faso is projected to increase 19 percent and in Senegal by four percent. Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal represent 66 percent of total production.

A. Burkina Faso

In MY 2016/17 (October 2016 to September 2017), rice production is estimated at 250,000 MT based on official government statistics; this is a 19 percent increase from last year due to higher planted acreage. For the same period, area increased by 19 percent to 170,000 hectares (HA) due to reportedly lower fonio and millet acreage. For MY 2017/18, Post projects that rice production could reach 260, 000 MT assuming good weather. Rice is the fourth largest cereal crop after corn, sorghum, and millet. Burkina Faso produces three types of rice: 1 irrigated (constitutes 23 percent of total planted area and 53 percent of total production) which yields between 4 to 7 MT per HA; 2) lowland rice which is rainfed or utilizes some irrigation (it represents with 67 percent of the area planted representing about 42 percent of total production) and yields between of 1.3 to 2.5 tons per HA; and 3) upland rice (rainfed) which constitutes 10 percent of planted area and five percent of total production and has an average yield of 1 ton per HA.

B. Cote d’Ivoire

For MY 2016/17, rice production and area decreased 27 percent to 1.3 million MT (MMT) and 1 million HA reportedly due to poor rainfall, which caused some farmers to leave their land fallow. In MY 2017/18, production is forecast at 1.69 MMT assuming normal rainfall.

Rice accounts for 65 percent of the total cereal production in Cote d’Ivoire followed by corn (30 percent), millet (2 percent), sorghum (2 percent), and fonio (less than 1 percent). However, in the last few years, a lack of funding, low seed supplies, weak processor demand due to limited capacity, and low market prices has dissuaded some farmers from growing rice. Cote d’Ivoire produces lowland (irrigated), seasonal flooded (by river), and upland (rainfed) rice, which represents 13, two, and 85 percent of planted area. For lowland rice farms sizes range between 1 to 2 HA and produce around three to 10 MT per HA; seasonal flooded rice farms range between .2 to 1 HA and produce about 3 MT per HA. Upland rice production is the lowest in terms of yield; the farms cultivate .2 to 1 HA which yields between .5 to 1.5 MT per HA.

Different rice varieties are utilized for lowland, seasonal flooded, and upland rice. For lowland and seasonal flooded rice, many farmers use Wab 638-1 (Akadi), Bouake 189, WITA 4, WITA 12, and WITA 9. For upland production, farmers generally cultivate Nerica 1 (Bonfani), Nerica 2 (Keah), Wab 56-50 (Gblagnin), Idsa 10 (Fafa), and Idsa 85 (Guegbin).

C. Mali

For MY 2016/17 rice production is estimated at 1.8 million tons based on official government statistics; it is expected to rise 19 percent higher than last year due to favorable weather conditions and higher acreage. In MY 2016/17, planted area is estimated to rise by 15 percent to 825 HA due to reportedly more rehabilitation of uncultivated land. For MY 2017/18 rice production is projected at 1.82 million tons assuming normal weather. Corn, rice, millet, and sorghum are the main cereal crops.

Malian farmers cultivate 20 percent of total irrigated area because they lack access to seeds, inputs, and agricultural equipment. Rice varieties Kogoni 91-1 and ADNY-11 are planted on approximately 60 and 23 percent of total rice area. Reportedly, less farmers are planting the BG 90-2 variety due to its apparent susceptibility to the yellow mosaic virus.

D. Senegal

In MY 2016/17, rice production is estimated to increase three percent to 642,000 MT on higher planted area, which increased by 18 percent to 284,000 HA because of the rehabilitation of uncultivated land in the basin of Anambe and the region of Kolda. For MY 2017/18 rice production is projected at 680,000 tons assuming good weather.

Irrigated and rainfed rice constitute 70 and 30 percent of total production. Irrigated rice is grown in the Senegal River Valley (SRV) and in the basin of Anambe; rainfed rice is cultivated in the regions of Fatick, Ziguinchor, Sedhiou, Kolda, Tambacounda, and Kedougou. Generally, rice farms are small, typically between 0.25 to 1 HA, although some larger farms exist near the SRV. Average yields for irrigated and rainfed rice are 4 and 2 MT per HA.

Within the last 20 years, Senegal has improved the quality of domestic rice production through the introduction of new varieties, better storage, and more modern processing. Financing has increased from the National Agricultural Bank (CNCAS) over the last three years, which has allowed more farmers to purchase agricultural equipment and buy better quality seeds (such as NERICA which can be cultivated on upland and lowland farms). Moreover, reportedly the government has continued to rehabilitate new land and improve its extension services. However, rice production still is challenged by lackluster irrigation systems, high electricity costs, and rising labor costs.

III. Consumption

For MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18, total rice consumption in the West African region is estimated at 10.28 and 10.65 million metric tons (MMT), growing at around three percent due to population and income growth.

A. Burkina Faso

For MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18, Post estimates rice consumption to increase 4.3 and 4.2 percent to 600,000 and 625,000 MT on population and income growth; consumers generally prefer rice to traditional cereals such as millet or corn as their incomes rise. Many buyers prefer 25 percent broken rice; however, buyers with higher incomes reportedly favor 100 percent broken, which is used in local dishes. Some rural areas also demand parboiled rice. Due to its price competitiveness and higher quality, imported rice (regular and broken rice) is usually in high demand.

B. Cote d’Ivoire

For MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18, Post estimates rice consumption at 2.9 and 3 MMT on population and income growth. Although cassava is the most popular staple in many rural areas, reportedly more consumers prefer rice as incomes increase. Urban consumers who live in Abidjan, Bouaké, Daloa, Gagnoa, Korhogo, Man, and Odienne generally prefer rice to other cereals. Ivoirians generally purchase 100 percent broken rice; wealthier consumers typically purchase 0 to 15 percent broken rice, as well as imported rice from India, Thailand, India, Vietnam, Pakistan, and the United States.

C. Mali

For MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18, Post estimates consumption at 1.8 and 1.9 MMT on population growth. Rice is not a staple food in Mali but has gradually become more popular. Most consumers purchase domestically produced rice because of its price competitiveness and quality.

D. Senegal

For MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18 Post estimates consumption at 1.6 and 1.7 million tons on population and income growth, as well as increasing urbanization. Since the 1970’s, consumer preferences have gradually shifted from traditional cereals to rice. Many Senegalese prefer broken rice, which is used for local dishes such as thieboudienne (broken rice with marinated fish, tomato paste, and vegetables). Most consumers prefer imported rice due to quality and price competiveness.

IV. Trade

Most countries in West Africa import rice to meet their food security needs. Large fluctuations in international prices can affect buying patterns, although demand is growing as more consumers shift from traditional grains to rice. MY 2016/17 rice imports for the West Africa region are estimated to increase to 4.29 million tons.

A. Burkina Faso

For MY 2016/17, rice imports are forecast at 350,000 tons, unchanged from last year due to strong domestic supplies. For 2017/18 Post projects imports to rise to 375, 000 tons on expectations of low international prices and rising demand. Rice is imported from India, Pakistan, and Thailand through Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Togo. Rice transported through Cote d’Ivoire is typically shipped by truck and/or train.

B. Cote d’Ivoire

For MY 2016/17 Post estimates imports to rise by 12 percent to 1.4 MMT because of lower production. For 2017/18, Post projects imports to increase by four percent to 1.45 MMT on expectations of growing demand. Côte d'Ivoire imports rice in bulk; some of these imports are processed, packaged, and re-exported as semi-milled rice. In MY 2015/16, the top rice suppliers to Cote d’Ivoire were Thailand (62 percent) and India (33 percent). In MY 2015/16, Cote d’Ivoire exported 20,000 tons of rice to the sub-region, which included Ghana (45 percent), Burkina Faso (38 percent), Benin (14 percent), and Niger (1 percent).

C. Mali

For MY 2016/17 Post estimates imports to decrease 70 percent to 50,000 MT on higher production. For MY 2017/18, imports are projected to remain at 50,000 tons on expectations of steady demand. In calendar year 2016, the top rice suppliers for Mali were Thailand (50 percent), India (32 percent), the United States (13 percent), and Senegal (4 percent). Senegal transships rice to Mali by truck.

D. Senegal

For MY 2016/17 and MY 2017/18 Post estimates rice imports to rise to 1 and 1.1 MMT on steady demand and expectations of continued low international prices. Senegal typically imports rice from India, Thailand, and Brazil. Imported rice is generally less expensive than domestically produced rice due to high production costs. For example, in MY 2016/17 imported rice (fragrant and regular) was on average $1.60 to $3.20 (per 50 KG bag) less expensive than domestically produced rice. Since 2015, the Government of Senegal has distributed rice import quotas to importers. Quotas are reexamined throughout the year and can change based on market dynamics. Any rice importer can request an import quota; however, there is no guarantee that an importer will receive approval.

V. Stocks

Many West African governments do not hold rice stocks or only carry very small stocks. Some private importers can hold up to 200,000 MT of rice. In January and February, 2017, the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) estimated private rice stocks in several markets, noting that some private stocks did not exceed 16,000 MT.

VI. Prices

In many West African countries, imported rice is generally less expensive than domestic rice. In the last five years, domestically produced rice prices have been on average 10 percent more expensive than imported rice. On March, 2017, CILSS published additional rice price data for West Africa, noting for the last five years domestic and imported rice prices varied between -15 percent to 15 percent .

VII. Policy

Since 2015, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which includes most West African countries, adopted a common external tariff (CET) of 10 percent for rice imports from non-ECOWAS countries. Although to date no uniform sanitary and phytosanitary standards have been agreed to or implemented on a regional level, most countries follow international guidelines recommended by the International Plant Protection Council and Codex.

A. Burkina Faso

The Government of Burkina Faso developed a national strategy called Burkina Faso National Rice Development Strategy which set a goal to produce 550,000 MT of rice by 2018. Several projects and programs in Burkina Faso support the rice sector such as: The Action Plan for the Rice Sector (PAFR), The Rainfed Rice Project (PRP), Growth Cluster of Bagré, Agricultural Development Project of the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA-PDA) of Sourou, the Agricultural Sector Promotion Company (SOPROFA), The Special Program for Food Security (SPFS), The National Strategy for Sustainable Development of Irrigated Agriculture (SNDDAI), and the Interprofessional Committee of Burkina Rice (CIR-B).

B. Cote d’Ivoire

The Government of Cote d’Ivoire (GCDI) developed a national strategy for rice development called Revised National Rice Development Strategy for the Cote d’Ivoire Rice Sector (NRSD) 2012-2020. The country’s objective is to reach self-sufficiency by 2020 through the production of 2 MMT of rice. Additionally, the GCDI plans to become a rice exporter by 2018.

C. Mali

The Government of Mali developed a Rice Development Strategy called National Strategy for the Development of Rice Growing (based on the Agricultural Guidance Law) under the framework of the African Rice Development Coalition (CARD). The goal is to attain self-sufficiency in rice by 2018 through various activities such as improving irrigation systems, access to land, availability of inputs, research capacity, technology transfer, post-harvest management, and natural resource management.

D. Senegal

The Government of Senegal has launched several rice development strategies such as The Plan Senegal Emergent which plans by 2022 to boost agricultural and industrial growth by seven percent, and the Program to Accelerate Agriculture, which hopes to increase rainfed rice production and lower irrigated rice production and achieve self-sufficiency by 2017. The government also implemented a project funded by the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) ($170 million) to irrigate and desalinate 36,500 HA in the SRV.

VIII. Marketing

For the last five years, local businesses have created new marketing in the urban areas in order to increase demand. For example, higher quality domestically produced rice is packed in neatly labeled bags in supermarkets, which is a new concept as rice is often purchased in bulk.

IX.- Other West African Country Data

Guinea is the second largest rice producer after Mali, producing an estimated 1.4 million tons in MY 2016/17. Post contacts believe domestic rice quality is low due to poor processing, and added that some imported rice is reexported to other neighboring countries. Niger rice demand is rising steadily due to changing consumer diets in the urban areas. Niger imports rice from Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Benin.

Production, Supply and Demand Data Statistics

Rice, Milled

2015/2016

2016/2017

2017/2018

Market Begin Year

Oct 2015

Oct 2016

Oct 2016

Burkina

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

Area Harvested

138

138

175

170

0

175

Beginning Stocks

26

26

12

12

0

12

Milled Production

211

211

240

250

0

260

Rough Production

325

325

369

385

0

400

Milling Rate (.9999)

6500

6500

6500

6500

0

6500

MY Imports

350

350

350

350

0

375

TY Imports

350

350

350

350

0

375

TY Imp. from U.S.

6

4

0

6

0

5

Total Supply

587

587

602

612

0

647

MY Exports

0

0

0

0

0

0

TY Exports

0

0

0

0

0

0

Consumption and Residual

575

575

590

600

0

625

Ending Stocks

12

12

12

12

0

22

Total Distribution

587

587

602

612

0

647

Yield (Rough)

2.3551

2.3551

2.1086

2.2647

0

2.2857

Rice, Milled

2015/2016

2016/2017

2017/2018

Market Begin Year

Oct 2015

Oct 2016

Oct 2016

Cote d'Ivoire

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

Area Harvested

1400

1400

1485

1018

0

1290

Beginning Stocks

316

316

527

527

0

287

Milled Production

1836

1836

1950

1335

0

1690

Rough Production

2825

2825

3000

2054

0

2600

Milling Rate (.9999)

6500

6500

6500

6500

0

6500

MY Imports

1250

1250

1300

1400

0

1450

TY Imports

1300

1000

1350

1200

0

1100

TY Imp. from U.S.

17

17

0

10

0

10

Total Supply

3402

3402

3777

3262

0

3427

MY Exports

75

75

75

75

0

75

TY Exports

75

75

75

75

0

75

Consumption and Residual

2800

2800

3200

2900

0

3000

Ending Stocks

527

527

502

287

0

352

Total Distribution

3402

3402

3777

3262

0

3427

Yield (Rough)

2.0179

2.0179

2.0202

2.0177

0

2.0155

Rice, Milled

2015/2016

2016/2017

2017/2018

Market Begin Year

Oct 2015

Oct 2016

Oct 2016

Mali

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

Area Harvested

725

725

750

825

0

843

Beginning Stocks

144

144

144

144

0

194

Milled Production

1515

1515

1650

1800

0

1820

Rough Production

2331

2331

2538

2769

0

2800

Milling Rate (.9999)

6500

6500

6500

6500

0

6500

MY Imports

170

170

170

50

0

50

TY Imports

170

170

170

50

0

50

TY Imp. from U.S.

2

2

0

2

0

2

Total Supply

1829

1829

1964

1994

0

2064

MY Exports

0

0

0

0

0

0

TY Exports

0

0

0

0

0

0

Consumption and Residual

1685

1685

1770

1800

0

1925

Ending Stocks

144

144

194

194

0

139

Total Distribution

1829

1829

1964

1994

0

2064

Yield (Rough)

3.2152

3.2152

3.384

3.3564

0

3.3215

Rice, Milled

2015/2016

2016/2017

2017/2018

Market Begin Year

Oct 2015

Oct 2016

Oct 2016

Senegal

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

USDA Official

New Post

Area Harvested

235

241

260

284

0

300

Beginning Stocks

275

275

289

289

0

246

Milled Production

624

624

680

642

0

680

Rough Production

918

918

1000

944

0

1000

Milling Rate (.9999)

6800

6800

6800

6800

0

6800

MY Imports

1000

1000

950

1000

0

1100

TY Imports

985

985

990

985

0

1000

TY Imp. from U.S.

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total Supply

1899

1899

1919

1931

0

2026

MY Exports

10

10

10

10

0

10

TY Exports

10

10

10

10

0

10

Consumption and Residual

1600

1600

1640

1675

0

1725

Ending Stocks

289

289

269

246

0

291

Total Distribution

1899

1899

1919

1931

0

2026

Yield (Rough)

3.9064

3.8091

3.8462

3.3239

0

3.3333