EU-28. Citrus Annual. Dec. 2013 Dec. 26, 2013
For MY 2013/14, EU-28 citrus production is projected to increase in almost all the producing countries to reach nearly 11 MMT which is an increase of 9 percent compared to the last campaign. This estimation is due to favorable weather conditions and the projected growth in European orange, lemon and grapefruit production of 12, 15 and 17 percent respectively. EU-28 orange juice production is expected to increase by 13 percent in MY 2013/14 with production of 100,678 MT (Brix 65), in line with higher expected deliveries of oranges.
Abbreviations used in this report:
CMO Common Market Organization
EC European Commission
EU European Union
FAS Foreign Agricultural Service
FCOJ Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
GTA Global Trade Atlas
HS Codes: Harmonized System codes for commodity classification used to calculate trade data
Orange Juice 200911, 200912, 200919
MS EU Member State(s)
MT Metric ton (1,000 kg)
TMT Thousand Metric Tons
MMT Million Metric Tons
MY Marketing year
Other Citrus November/October
Orange Juice November/October
PS&D Production, Supply and Demand
USD U.S. Dollar
EU orange production is concentrated in the Mediterranean region. Spain and Italy represent nearly 80 percent of the EU’s total production of oranges. The remaining 20 percent is distributed among other Member States (MS), mainly Cyprus, Greece and Portugal. For MY2013/14, an EU-wide orange crop of 6.6 MMT is forecasted, resulting in an increase of approximately 12 percent, due to favorable weather conditions.
Overall EU-28 orange production had been revised up in MY 2012/13 due to higher estimations in Italy. Due to bad weather conditions because of the draught in 2012/2013, total orange production in the EU in MY 2012/13 finally reached about 5.9 MMT, 2.5 percent lower than previously estimated.
Spain is the largest orange producer within the EU, representing about 50 percent of the EU’s orange production. Orange production for MY 2013/14 in Spain is projected at around 3.4 MMT, 15 percent above last year in what is considered a promising season for the sector. However, the Spanish citrus sector remains cautious, as high temperatures and lack of rain initially had an impact on the size and color of the fruit. The lack of water has resulted in smaller gauges, although the quality is very good. The Spanish orange harvesting was running about 10 days later than usual as unseasonably high temperatures caused a delay in fruit coloration. The orange prices are reflecting this, as at the moment orange prices are lower as a result of the smaller calibers and larger production.
The arrival of the first autumn rains improved citrus production. After a period of stagnation with fruit not meeting the coloring and caliber, the arrival of cold temperatures improved both the fruit’s ripening and the calibers.
Producers try to cover the whole marketing year by growing very early and very late varieties, which extends the fruit availability resulting in stable prices throughout the season. Oranges are grown with the objective of being consumed fresh and oranges of the Navel group are the most appreciated, especially Navelina and Navelate. An increase of around 28 percent in the Navel group is expected for MY 2013/14. Valencia Late variety is used to boost supply in the late part of the season. Valencia late varieties have a brighter color, and are more adequate for juice.
The main Spanish regions of orange production are the Region of Valencia, Andalusia and Region of Murcia. Valencia and Andalusia cover the 90 percent of the total Spanish orange production. In Valencia, the area planted for citrus has been diminishing due to urban pressure and a switch from citrus to other fruit crops such as kiwi, nectarines, and peaches. On the other hand in Andalusia the area has been increasing and groves with less than 10 years are now reaching their potential.
Italy’s MY 2013/14 orange production is forecast to go back to MY 2011/12 levels thanks to favorable weather, reaching 1.9 MMT; an increase of around 12 percent. Production of red oranges is forecast to register an increase of 17 percent (1,415,000 MT) compared to the previous season (1,203,000 MT). Fruit quality is forecast to be good except for those plants affected by the Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV). A shortage of larger sizes (size ¾) is foreseen, as there will be more small size oranges. Sicily and Calabria are the main orange-producing areas, accounting for 59 and 22 percent respectively. Tarocco, Moro, Sanguinello, Naveline, and Valencia are the chief varieties grown in Italy.
Greece’s MY 2013/14 orange production is forecast to increase by 4.3 percent compared to the previous year, due to favorable weather. The production may reach 970,000 MT. Fruit size is forecast to be on average. Peloponnese and Aitoloakarnaia (western Greece) are the main orange-producing areas. Washington Navel, Commons, Valencia, Navelina, and Newhall are the major orange varieties grown in Greece.
In Portugal the MY2013/14 season has developed within the normal parameters. Production of 208,000 MT is expected to be similar to last year’s level. Calibers are considered within the normal range.
MY 2013/14 Cypriot orange production is expected to increase by 15 percent from the previous year. The size of fruits is expected to be normal. Famagusta, Limassol, Larnaca, and Pathos districts are the major orange-producing areas. Navels, Ovals (Shamuses), and Valencia are the main orange varieties grown in Cyprus.
Consumption of oranges in the EU is expected to increase to 5.6 MMT for MY 2013/14. Higher demand compared to previous years reflects higher availability in the market. Consumption per capita in producing countries has traditionally been over the EU average and are consumed fresh. Spain shows a level of domestic per capita consumption of about 22 kg. Oranges are sold all year round due to high demand by consumers, but in Spain around 80 percent of sales are concentrated in the months of November to May. Italy’s MY 2013/14 orange consumption is forecast to increase by approximately 8 percent driven by the increased production. Most oranges are consumed fresh. Italian per capita consumption is about 25-27 kg. Blood varieties (Tarocco, Moro, and Sanguinello) are used mainly for fresh consumption. Late varieties (Ovale and Valencia) are destined to both fresh market and processing industry.
The EU is a net importer of oranges, with imports largely exceeding exports. Imports into the EU were valued at about US $700 million in MY 2012/13 whereas the value of exports in MY 2012/13 was close to US $266 million. Intra-EU trade plays a key role considering that orange production is concentrated in the Mediterranean area. Other EU MS represent the main destination of the major EU producers.
The major supplier of oranges to the European market is South Africa, which supplies the market from June until October, when the Northern Hemisphere harvest starts, followed by Egypt and Uruguay. Most imports of South African citrus fruit were banned on November 28, 2013 for the rest of the year over fear that citrus black spot, a fungal disease, could spread throughout the EU, since it is currently not found in the EU. In MY 2012/13 Uruguay has recovered from the last frosts and expects good quality and calibers. Morocco and Argentina imports have declined 41 and 23 percent respectively while imports from Zimbabwe increased 100 percent. Imports from the United States are showing a downward trend with a decrease of 55 percent and 215,000 MT in MY 2012/13, representing 0.02 percent of total EU imports.
The major EU export destinations are Switzerland, Serbia, and Russia. Exporters are aiming at increasing their presence in the strategic emerging markets of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Brazil.
Concerning Spanish exports in MY 2012/13, the Spanish citrus sector registered a third consecutive record of total citrus exports, exceeding 3 MMT. Exports of oranges exceeded the export of mandarins due to increasing production and export of late table oranges, particularly Navel oranges. The recovery of production and export of Navelinas after the frost of two seasons ago also helped to reach a new record of orange exports.
Total European tangerine production is expected to be 2.9 MMT in MY2013/14 remaining stable compared to last campaign.
Spain’s total tangerine/mandarin production is projected to increase only 0.96 percent reaching 1.89 MMT in MY 2013/14. This is mostly due to the fall in production of Clementine by 3.8 percent, the main Spanish tangerine production, whereas the production of Satsuma and Mandarins are expected to rise. The main Spanish regions of tangerine/mandarin production are the Region of Valencia, Andalusia and Catalonia. Valencia covers the 75 percent of the total Spanish tangerine/mandarin production. Andalucía is the only region of Spain reporting an increase in the production of mandarins as groves that were planted 5 to 10 years ago come into full production. In MY 2013/14 Huelva will be the main producer of Andalusia’s tangerines.
The heat and lack of rains during the autumn caused the earliest Clementine and Mandarin varieties to reach overall smaller calibers but good quality. However, the situation of calibers could be changed with the arrival of cold temperatures, resulting in acceptable prices for Clementines. Farmers are hopeful that the good quality and the slight fall in supply will allow prices to remain at good levels.
The industry continues to expand the range of varieties used to cover more of the calendar spectrum. New early and late varieties continue being developed. The main concern perceived by tangerine/mandarin producers is the concentrated harvest within a few months.
Italy’s MY 2013/14 tangerine production is forecast to decrease by 4 percent compared to the previous season. Italy’s tangerine production consists of over 80 percent seedless Clementine and nearly 20 percent mandarins. Italy’s MY 2013/14 Clementine production is forecast to register an 8 percent drop (615,000 MT compared to 670,000 MT in 2012/13), while mandarin production is forecast to grow 18.8 percent (145,000 MT) compared to the previous season (122,000 MT). Quality is forecast to be satisfactory for both Clementines and mandarins (especially the Avana and Ciaculli varieties). Calabria, Sicily, and Apulia are the main tangerine-producing areas, accounting for 50, 23, and 14 percent respectively. Comune or Oroval, and Monreal are the leading Clementine varieties grown in Italy. Avana and Tardivo di Ciaculli are the main mandarin varieties.
Greece’s MY 2013/14 tangerine production is forecast to grow significantly at 10.4 percent, due to favorable weather conditions. The main producing areas include the prefectures of Igoumenitsa, Arta, Mosologgi, and Thesprotia, located in northern Greece. Clementine is the major tangerine variety grown in Greece.
MY 2013/14 Cypriot tangerine production is expected to decrease 6 percent compared to the previous year with low volumes but with higher calibers. Famagusta, Limassol, Larnaca, and Paphos districts are the major tangerine-producing areas. Mandoras, Tangelo, Minneolas, Nova, and Clementines are the main tangerine varieties grown in Cyprus. In Cyprus, new experimental strains on modern rootstock hold high expectations for the next years.
Tangerines are the second most important citrus product in Portugal, after oranges. The Algarve is the most representative region with 80 percent of the total producing area. The production of tangerines is projected at the same levels of last year with normal calibers and quality.
Total EU-28 consumption in MY2013/14 is forecast to reach 2.5 MMT, stable compared to previous year with only a 0.8 percent decrease, reflecting lower availability and a falling purchasing power. The per capita consumption in the EU for 2013/14 is calculated at 5.0 kilos.
Most tangerines are consumed fresh.
The major suppliers of tangerines to the European market are South Africa, Morocco and Peru, which replaces Turkey in the third position. Morocco signed an agreement with the EU which allows a higher export quota for Moroccan agricultural products. Most imports of South African citrus fruit were banned on November 28, 2013 for the rest of the year over fear that citrus black spot, a fungal disease, could spread throughout the EU, since it is currently not found in the EU. EU imports of tangerines were valued at US $400 million and EU exports at US $430 million in MY 2012/13.
Exports continued to increase to Russia in MY2012/13 and this country is seen as the only growing market that is effectively able to absorb large quantities. The EU turned from being a net importer of tangerines in volume terms to being a net exporter in 2010/11 and continues with this trend in MY 2012/13.
Imports from the United States increased 30 percent in MY 2012/13 compared to last year, reaching 4,800 MT and were valued at US $ 7 million. European exports of tangerines/mandarins to the United States have slightly declined to 1.5 percent.
EU lemon production is expected to reach 1.34 MMT in MY 2013/14, a 15 percent increase from the previous year, due to favorable weather conditions.
In Spain, the lemon crop production for MY 2013/14 is projected to be 715,000 MT, a 7 percent increase from the previous year, due to favorable weather conditions. The season started with 10 days delay when compared to previous years. The calibers are small resulting probably in a higher percentage of lemons for processing.
Lemon production in Spain is concentrated in three regions located in the southern Mediterranean area: Murcia, Region of Valencia and the Provinces of Malaga and Almeria in Andalusia. The dominant varieties in Spain are Fino which represents 70 percent of total production and is favored by the processing sector and Verna, a tender and juicy variety with few seeds, representing 30 percent of total production. There is an interest to replace Fino varieties by Verna varieties, representing in the short-term, 60 percent of total production for Fino varieties and 40 percent of total production for Verna varieties. With Verna variety there is higher profitability and less competition with Turkey. The harvest period for the Fino variety runs from September to March. In the case of Verna, it goes from March to July, which allows for a year round lemon supply.
AILIMPO, the Spanish Lemon and Grapefruit Inter-professional Association, estimates the same growth in production. However, there is a disparity between official data from the Ministry of Agriculture and industry’s production estimates although the percentages of variation are similar in both cases. The Spanish industry estimates a 5-7 percent increase compared to previous year, reaching 860,000 MT.
The start of the season is set by the early ending of the Southern Hemisphere campaign in Argentina, Uruguay and South Africa. Turkey is also a strong competitor due to low production costs, export subsidies and a 19 percent devaluation of the Turkish currency against the euro.
As occurred in the previous campaign, the good volumes being exported make for an optimal scenario for this year’s lemon crop in Spain regarding profitability for farmers and industry.
Italy’s MY 2013/14 lemon production is forecast to be excellent in terms of both quantity (+31 percent compared to the previous campaign) and quality (especially the Primofiore variety), due to favorable weather conditions. Fruit grades are forecast to be good. Sicily produces more than 86 percent of Italy’s lemons. Lemon-producing area is progressively decreasing: higher input costs and lower prices have negatively affected crop profitability. Femminello Commune (F. Zagara Bianca, F.Siracusano, and F. S.Teresa), Monachello, and Interdonato are the main lemon varieties grown in Italy.
Greece’s MY 2013/14 lemon production is forecast to remain steady. The main lemon-producing areas include the prefectures of Korinthos, Achaia, Piraeus, and Ilias, located in northern Greece. The major lemon variety grown in Greece is Maglini, whose fruit is strongly aromatic, with a quite sour juice. It has a thin, shiny peel and when fully ripe has a yellow color.
MY 2013/14 Cypriot lemon production is expected to be at the same levels as the previous year. The size of fruit is expected to be normal. Lapithos village is the main lemon-producing area. Lapithiotiki (a local variety), Eureka, and Lisbon are the major lemon varieties grown in Cyprus. Lapithiotiki lemon variety boasts the highest per capita domestic consumption, due to its distinctive aroma and taste. It has a thin skin, oval shape, rich flesh, firm yellow rind, and the majority of the fruits are seedless.
Lemons represent 5 percent of Portugal’s citrus crop. Production in MY 2013/14 is projected at the same level as last season’s with normal calibers and quality.
EU-28 consumption is forecast to be around 1.4 MMT in MY2013/14. This is a 6 percent increase from the previous year due to a higher domestic availability. Lemons are primary used for fresh consumption. The industry is also projected to process more lemons. The lemon per capita consumption in the EU for 2013/14 is estimated at 2.7 kilos. Greece has become increasingly reliant on imported lemon juice to meet consumer demand for soft drinks. The yield for lemon juice is 15-17 Kg of fresh lemons to produce 1 Kg of lemon juice, depending on the quality of the fruit.
The EU is a net importer of lemons, with imports exceeding exports. Imports into the EU reached US $530 million in MY 2012/13, while the value of exports in MY 2012/13 was US $98 million. Intra-EU trade is critical to the sector, taking into account the volume of lemons produced in the Mediterranean Member States and the demand in non producer Member States. The main intra-EU importers are Germany, France, Poland and the United Kingdom.
The major supplier to the European market is Argentina, followed by Turkey, Brazil, and Mexico replacing South Africa. The major EU importers of non-EU lemons are the Netherlands, Germany, France and Italy. The main extra-EU destination for European lemons is Russia.
Overall EU grapefruit production is projected to grow 9 percent reaching 121,000 MT in MY 2013/14, a level above the previous years due to the increase in Cyprus, with 17 percent growth, due to favorable weather conditions.
The total EU area has an upward trend thanks to Greece’s increased interest in producing grapefruit, following Cyprus’ trend.
Grapefruit production is projected to increase 3 percent in Spain in MY 2013/14 with 59,000 MT. Due to the weather conditions the sizes are smaller than previously estimated. Spain’s grapefruit production is found in the region of Murcia (60 percent), Andalusia (25 percent) and region of Valencia (12 percent). The main variety planted is Ruby Red. This is a very small market for Spain and indeed for the EU, as most of consumption is supplied by imports.
Grapefruit from Cyprus, the second largest EU-28 grapefruit producer, is regarded as amongst the best worldwide. MY 2013/14 Cypriot grapefruit production is projected to increase 17 percent compared to the previous campaigns. White Marsh Seedless, mostly grown in the Limassol area, is the major grapefruit variety grown in Cyprus. New plantations have been established in the district of Paphos where the Red varieties (Star Ruby, Red Blush, and Rio Red) were introduced to meet the increased market demand.
Italy’s MY 2013/14 grapefruit production is forecast to rise 33 percent compared to the previous season thanks to favorable weather.
Greece’s MY 2013/14 grapefruit production is forecast to stay flat. The prefectures of Corinth and Kavala, the region of Thessaly, and the island of Crete are the major grapefruit-producing areas.
EU-28 consumption of fresh grapefruit is forecast to remain stable at around 405,000 MT in 2013/14. The Spanish industry believes there is the potential for growth in the consumption of grapefruit as the majority of people still do not consume grapefruit. Cypriot grapefruits are both consumed fresh and channeled to food and beverage manufacturers.
The EU is a net importer of grapefruits. The EU imports grapefruit from third countries, as domestic supply is currently enough to supply a quarter of internal demand. Imports for MY 2012/13 were valued at US$ 332 million while exports were US$ 22 million. The largest importers within the EU are France, the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. The major sources for imported grapefruit in MY 2012/13 were South Africa, China, Turkey, United States, and Israel. Imports from Turkey and the United States decreased 36 percent and 11 percent respectively while imports from South Africa rose 35 percent. The imports from the United States were valued at US$ 46 million. Regarding the exports, the main destinations for EU-28 grapefruit are Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
EU-28 orange juice production is expected to increase by 13 percent in MY 2013/14 with 100,678 MT (Brix 65), in line with higher expected deliveries of oranges to be processed by the industry. The European citrus sector is strongly orientated towards the fresh produce market. Margins are better for fresh fruit intended for fresh consumption for both domestic and export demand. Processing is a buffer for production surpluses and fruit that does not meet commercial standards.
While orange juice is the most popular juice within the EU-28, it competes with other non-alcoholic drinks and juices made from other fruits. Despite the reduction on the purchasing power and the competition of other drinks, the European consumption is projected to be stable. The preferred packaging type by European consumers is the carton. The convenience of orange juice is reflected in its better adaptation to modern consumption habits than whole fresh oranges.
In MY 2012/13, total EU imports of orange juice were valued at US$ 1.5 billion with exports worth US$ 142 million. EU-28 imports have slightly increased by 1 percent in MY 2012/13. Brazil continues to be the main supplier of orange juice to the EU with around 85 percent of total imports. In MY 2012/13 the EU-28 imported 19.8 MMT from the United States with a value of US$ 47 million. EU-28 exports have decreased by 4.4 percent in MY 2012/13 with main export destinations to be Switzerland and Saudi Arabia.
EU Policy Section
A new Common Market Organization (CMO) for fruit and vegetables was reformed in 2007. The policy changes agreed in the context of the CMO reforms for fruit and vegetables were incorporated in the single CMO by Council Regulation 361/2008. The shift from production support to direct aid to producers was designed to improve the competitiveness, market orientation and sustainability of the sector.
The European Commission asserts that the aim of the reformed CMO is to improve the competitiveness and market orientation of the fruit and vegetable sector, reduce income fluctuations resulting from crises, promote consumption – so contributing to improved public health – and enhance environmental safeguards.
Producer Organizations (PO's) are the key elements in the EU's CMO for fruit and vegetables. PO's are legal entities established by producers to market commodities, including citrus fruit. EU subsidies are not paid to individual producers but are channeled through PO's. In order to qualify for EU subsidies, PO's must submit an operational program financed through an operational fund. The EU's financial contribution is paid directly into the PO's operational fund. The calculation of the estimated amount of operational fund is based on the operational program and the value of marketed production. All the implementing rules of Council Regulation 1234/2007 have been incorporated in Commission Implementing Regulation 543/2011.
The Commission Implementing Regulation 701/2012 amended the crisis adaptation measures in Commission Implementing Regulation 543/2011 since August 2012 and was introduced as part of the ongoing CAP reform. The Commission improved the functioning of the crisis management system in the fruit and vegetable sector in the run-up to the entry into force of the CAP reform expected in 2015. The regulation also aims to make rules more flexible on green harvesting and non-harvesting.
The Commission has agreed to add compensation payments for withdrawing certain products. The amounts of aid per kilo paid to POs for products withdrawn from the market have been increased for certain products, among others for Clementines (22.16 €/100 kg) and lemons (23.99 €/100 kg).
EU Marketing Standards for Fruits and Vegetables
The Commission implementing Regulation (EU) No 543/2011 provides for a general marketing standard for all fresh fruits and vegetables, repealing Commission Regulation 1221/2008. Specific marketing standards are still in place for ten products, including citrus fruit. The specific marketing standards are set out in Part B of Annex I to this Regulation. The specific marketing standards for citrus fruit can be found in Part 2 of that same section (p.111).
Fresh fruit and vegetable imports into the EU are checked for compliance with EU-harmonized marketing standards. These standards apply at all marketing stages and include criteria such as quality, size, labeling, packaging, and presentation.
Certification of Fruit Shipments
Plant products need a phytosanitary certificate to be exported to the EU. Phytosanitary certificates issued by an APHIS inspector are required to accompany fruit, vegetable, and nut shipments. APHIS issues phytosanitary certificates in accordance with international regulations established by the International Plant Protection Convention of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This standard-setting body coordinates cooperation between nations to control plant and plant product pests and to prevent their spread.
Council Directive 2000/29/EC contains provisions concerning compulsory plant health checks. This includes documentary, identity, and physical plant health checks to verify compliance with EU import requirements.
Commission Regulation 1756/2004 provides for plant health checks to be carried out at reduced frequency when justified. The list of products recommended for plant health checks at reduced levels was updated August 30, 2013.
Note: Most imports of South African citrus fruit were banned on November 28, 2013 for the rest of the years over fear that citrus black spot, a fungal disease found in dozens of shipments, could spread throughout the EU, since it is currently not found in the EU. While harmless to humans, citrus black spot causes unsightly lesions on the fruit and leaves, reducing both harvest quality and quantity.
Initially, the ban will apply only to the 2012/13 harvest, but could be extended into next year. That could threaten South Africa’s 600,000 tones of citrus exports to the EU, worth about 1 billion € (1.3 billion USD). South Africa supplies about a third of the EU’s total citrus imports and is the main source of oranges for juices in Britain, Germany and France. The ban comes at a sensitive time as the EU is seeking South Africa’s support to unlock stalled trade deals with sub Saharan Africa.
School Fruit Scheme
A key objective of the changes made to the Fruit and Vegetable regime was to reverse the declining consumption of fruit and vegetables. Commission Regulation 288/2009, last amended by Commission Implementing Regulation 1208/2011, lays down the rules for applying the European School Fruit Scheme (SFS) as a measure to combat child obesity. These SFSs include three elements: free distribution of fruit and vegetables in schools, a series of accompanying measures, such as information campaigns on healthy eating habits, and monitoring and evaluation. The SFS aims to provide fruit and vegetables to school children from the start of the school year.
The SFS makes €90 million of EU funds available to provide fruit and vegetables to school children to be matched by national and private funds. The 2013/2014 school year is the fifth year of the program and the Commission implementing decision of March 26, 2013, allocates the €90 million of EU funds to the 25 participating Member States (Sweden, Finland and UK have opted not to participate). The main beneficiaries of the Scheme in 2013/2014 will be Italy, who is set to receive over € 20.5 million, followed by Poland (€ 13.6 million), Germany (€ 12 million), Romania (€ 4.9 million), France (€ 4.7 million), Hungary (€ 4.5 million), Spain (€ 4.4 million) and the Czech Republic (€ 4.2 million).
Maximum Residue Level for Fruit
Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) for pesticides, including import tolerances, have been harmonized throughout the EU since September 2008. As a marketing tool, some retail chains in the EU adopt private standards that exceed EU regulations by requiring their suppliers to adhere to stricter company policies that limit the maximum residues to 30, 50, or 70 percent of the respective EU MRL.
Please find the link to the EU MRL database, as well as to the International MRL database developed by USDA for MRLs worldwide.
Imports of fresh fruit and vegetables are subject to the Entry Price System (EPS) which has been in place in its current form since the Uruguay Round. It is a complex tariff system that provides a high level of protection to EU producers. In this system fruits and vegetables imported at or above an established entry price are charged an ad valorem duty only. Produce valued below the entry price are charged a tariff equivalent in addition to the ad valorem duty. The tariff equivalent is graduated for products valued between 92 and 100 percent of the entry price. The ad valorem duty and the full tariff equivalent are levied on imports valued at less than 92 percent of the entry price.
Whether or not the EU will maintain the EPS will be discussed in the context of the Doha Round trade talks. The U.S. tends to sell high quality products, which are usually relatively higher priced and typically do not face any additional duty. Replacing the EPS with fixed tariffs could result in higher ad valorem duties.
Tariff levels for 2014 are published in Commission Implementing Regulation 1001/2013. The tariffs for citrus fruit remain unchanged compared to the levels of 2013 and can be found at page 96 for oranges, tangerines, lemons, grapefruit and other citrus fruit, while the tariff for orange juice can be found at page 165