Report Highlights: 

Mozambique is one step closer to planting its first genetically engineered (GE) field trails, after the Minister of Science and Technology approved revised regulations that will create a positive environment for seed companies to start research. The revised document is now pending approval from the Mozambique Council of Ministers. It is expected that the final document will be approved before the elections in October 2014.

Executive Summary 

Mozambique’s agricultural sector is characterized mainly by subsistence farming. About 80 percent of the population (estimated at 23 million) is active in agriculture. Of this, only 10 percent is involved in commercial farming and the remaining 90 percent can be classified as subsistence farmers. Over 80 percent of the total cultivated area is used for production of staple food crops for self-consumption, including cassava, corn, rice, sorghum and pulses. 

Mozambique’s exports of agricultural, fish and forestry products to the United States were valued at US$20.3 million in 2013, a 52 percent increase from the previous year, due to an increase in the exports of cashew nuts and tobacco. Cashew nuts (US$14.0 million or 70 percent of total agricultural exports to the United States), tobacco (US$5.0 million), and tea (US$0.8 million) were the major items exported to the United States. 

Mozambique’s imports of agricultural, fish and forestry products from the United States decreased by 32 percent to US$34.4 million in 2013. The decrease in imports was due primarily to an 80 percent decline in wheat imports. Soybean oil (US$14.7 million), other intermediate products (US$8.7 million) and wheat (US$5.6 million) were the major products imported from the United States by Mozambique in 2013. 

Mozambique has a Regulation on Biosafety related to the management of Genetically Modified Organisms (Decree no. 6/2007, of April 25th) in place. However, due to certain limitations in the regulations, the Minister of Science and Technology (MST) requested a complete review of the Decree. The review, which was finalized in December 2011, recommended complementing biosafety rules that will contribute to the establishment of an operational biosafety regulatory framework in Mozambique. Later in 2012, another review was done by the African Biosafety Network of Expertise (ABNE) to strengthen the liability and redress articles of the draft regulations. The revised Decree with complementary rules was submitted to the MST and its legal team later in 2013. This document is now pending approval from the Mozambique Council of Ministers. It is expected that the final Decree will be approved before the elections in October 2014. This could allow for the planting of GE field trials for the first time in Mozambique. 

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY 

PART A: PRODUCTION AND TRADE 

(a) PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 

Currently, there is not any GE product development taking place in Mozambique. However, Mozambique is a partner country in the Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) project funded by the Gates and Buffett foundations. It is also foreseen that BT cotton and drought tolerant corn field trials could start within the next few years, once the Mozambique government finalizes approving the revised Biosafety Legislation. 

(b) COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION 

No commercial production of GE crops is currently taking place in Mozambique. 

(c) EXPORTS 

Mozambique is not exporting any GE crops. 

(d) IMPORTS 

Mozambique does allow for the imports of GE crops intended for direct use as food, feed or for processing but requires authorization from the National Biosafety Authority. The applicant has to submit a report on the risk assessment and management for human health and the environment, including, monitoring measures. The applicant may also be required to submit samples for testing purposes. 

(e) FOOD AID RECIPIENT COUNTRY 

The imports of GE products for food aid is generally authorized in emergency situations, but only for commodities destined for human consumption and only if there is no alternative solutions to respond to emergencies on a timely manner. The GE food grains imported need to be processed prior to distribution to the final recipients of food aid, in order to avoid utilization as seed. The import authorization granted is only valid while the emergency is still in effect. 

PART B: POLICY 

(a) REGULATORY FRAMEWORK 

The government of Mozambique acknowledged the contribution that modern biotechnology can make to meet critical needs for food and nutritional security. At the same time, the government also recognized that the development of modern biotechnology needs to go hand-in-hand with appropriate regulations in order to maximize the benefits while minimizing potential risks.

It is within this context that the Parliament of Mozambique ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in 2001(Resolution no. 11/2001, of December 20th) and created the inter-institutional National Biosafety Working Group (GIIBS - Grupo Inter-Institucional Sobre Bio-Segurança) to coordinate the process of developing National Biosafety Framework for Mozambique. The Ministry of Science and Technology was designated to serve as the National Biosafety Authority. This process culminated in development of the Draft National Biosafety Framework (NBF) published in 2005. The draft NBF was further refined through public consultation process that lead to the development of a consolidated document which served as basis for the Decree no. 6/2007, of April 25th, containing the Regulation on Biosafety related to Management Regulation. 

The objective of the regulation was to establish domestic legislation aimed at regulating GE activities in Mozambique in order to contribute for adequate protection of the environment, biological diversity, and human health. The approval of Decree no. 6/2007 by the Council of Ministers constituted an important landmark towards establishment of enabling environment for safe and responsible application of modern biotechnology in Mozambique. However, Mozambique is still challenged with setting up a functional regulatory and institutional framework for the smooth implementation of the Decree. 

In 2011, the Ministry of Science and Technology announced that Mozambique intends to revise its regulations on GE products in order to adapt the legislation to the country's current needs. Post was made aware by the Mozambique’s Cotton Institute and private sector that companies are hesitant to assist in field trials due to gaps in the liability and redress articles in the Biosafety Regulations. The way the current proposed regulation is written liability for damages would be placed only on the private partner involved in field trials. This issue has caused multinational seed companies to be reluctant to conduct field trails and has stalled confined field trials of a drought-tolerant GE corn variety being developed under the WEMA project funded by the Gates and Buffett foundations. 

Currently, GIIBS is tasked to co-ordinate biosafety activities in Mozambique. The Ministry of Science and Technology is the national competent authority and chair GIIBS. GIIBS consists of the representatives seven ministries, namely: 

• Ministry of Science and Technology 

• Ministry of Agriculture; 

• Ministry for Coordination of Environmental Affairs; 

• Ministry of Health 

• Ministry of Industry and Trade; 

• Ministry of Fisheries; 

• Ministry of Planning and Development; and 

The GIIBS meet on a quarterly basis and representatives from public and private entities and experts may be invited to the meetings of GIIBS. The GIIBS is empowered: 

• To advise the government in decision making on safe transfer, handling and use of GE products; 

• To coordinate the development and updating of rules that adequately address the country’s sustainable development objectives, consistent with the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety; 

• To produce periodical technical reports on the status of the biotechnology and biosafety in Mozambique; 

• To ensure the exchange of biosafety information at the national, regional and international levels; 

• To promote public awareness and education programs on biotechnology and biosafety at a national level; 

• In collaboration with other relevant entities, to evaluate the biosafety component in the applications, proposals and projects related to activities involving GE, based on risk assessment reports, inputs from the public and any other socio-economic considerations; 

• To establish technical and scientific requirements for GE development and trials; 

• To promote short-, medium- and long term training programs on biotechnology and biosafety; and 

• To ensure the monitoring and evaluation of the enforcement of the Regulation. 

(b) APPROVALS 

No plants or crops have been approved or registered in Mozambique for cultivation, imports or exports. 

(c) FIELD TESTING 

Mozambique’s current Biosafety legislation does allow for field testing, but elements of the legislation require the technology provider to bear responsibility for any negative impacts. This has made it difficult to find a seed company to partner in BT cotton field trials. However, the latest draft regulation submitted for final approval addresses this issue and is in line with international standards. 

(d) STACKED EVENT APPROVALS 

The Mozambique’s Biosafety Legislation does not indicate how it will handle stack events approvals. 

(e) ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 

Not Applicable 

(f) COEXISTENCE 

There is no specific guideline for coexistence and Mozambique does not have a national organic standard in place. 

(g) LABELING 

Currently, no compulsory labeling of GE products or food containing GE products is necessary. 

(h) TRADE BARRIERS

There are no biotechnology related trade barriers that negatively affect United States exports to Mozambique. 

(i) INTELECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS 

Not Applicable. 

(j) CARTAGENA PROTOCOL RATIFICATION 

The Parliament of Mozambique ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in 2001(Resolution no. 11/2001, of December 20th) and created GIIBS to co-ordinate biosafety activities in Mozambique 

(k) INTERNATIONAL TREATIE/FOR A 

Mozambique is a signatory member of inter alia: 

• The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization (WTO-SPS). 

• Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex). 

• International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). 

(l) RELATED ISSUES 

There are no other issues related to plant biotechnology that are not captured under the current headings. 

(m) MONITORING AND TESTING 

There is no system in place for testing and monitoring of GE products. 

(n) LOW LEVEL PRESENCE POLICY 

There is currently no low level presence policy in Mozambique. 

PART C: MARKETING 

(a) MARKET ACCEPTANCE 

If BT cotton and drought tolerant corn seed become available, post does not foresee any rejection from the subsistence and commercial farmers, as the farmers have been requested this technology for a long time.

(b) PUBLIC/PRIVATE OPINIONS 

Most people in Mozambique are not aware about the technology. However, among scientist and the government there is support for it. 

(c) MARKETING STUDIES 

Post is not aware of any marketing studies on GE products conducted in Mozambique. 

PART D: CAPACITY BUILDING AND OUTREACH 

(a) ACTIVITIES 

The Plant Biotechnology and Biosafety Workshop (April 8-12, 2013): Through funding from the Office of the Secretary, post facilitated the participation of the Director of the Mozambique Cotton Institute, a Cotton Institute technician and the advisor in the Ministry of Environment Affairs, in a Biotechnology and Biosafety for African Countries workshop in Brazil. The Brazilian Agency for Cooperation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Embrapa, with support of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, the National Biosafety Committee, the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, and Brazil’s Biotechnology Information Council were involved in the workshop. Participants included policymakers and producers from Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda. 

International Biotechnology Symposium (May 22-24, 2013): An International Biotechnology Symposium took place in May 2013 in Maputo. The symposium’s aim was to discuss and exchange experiences in biotechnology, particularly in the context of developing countries. Participants included scientists, academics, policy makers, entrepreneurs, and organizations involved in biotechnology activities. Through funding from the Office of the Secretary, post brought Dr. Karim Maredia from the Michigan State University as key note speaker. Dr. Karim’s presentation covered the United States’ experience with GE crops and shared various possibilities of training in biotechnology available for Mozambican citizens. 

Cochran Fellowship Program (August 3-10, 2013): Under the Cochran Fellowships Program post coordinated the training of two biotechnology technicians at the Michigan State University. One participant is working at the Biotechnology Center of the University Eduardo Mondlane and the other at the Ministry of Science and Technology. 

Biotech Outreach (March 9-12, 2014): Ms. Zhulieta Willbrand, International Trade Specialist from the Office of Agreements and Scientific Affairs in the Foreign Agricultural Services agency of the United States Department of Agriculture attended a biotechnology workshop in Mozambique. The biotechnology workshop was organized by a local university in Maputo, the UEM. The workshop gathered the majority of biotechnology stakeholders in Mozambique and was officially opened by the Minister of Science and Technology. Many papers about biotechnology were presented. Ms. Willbrand also met the Minister of Science and Technology, the Mozambique Cotton Institute Director, as well as the, Brazilian Cooperation Agency in Mozambique to discuss possible future collaboration.

Capacity Building (July 5-20, 2014): Post/Mozambique accompanied six South African small-scale farmers to an Emerging Farmer Biotechnology Training course at the School of Agriculture and Natural Resources of the Missouri State University as part of the Cochran Fellowship Program. The farmers were exposed to plant transformation (GE), novel irrigation, soil health, no-till farming, pest control technologies, as well as, biosafety and regulatory processes in the United States. The two-week training course was a unique exchange opportunity to meet and interact with different farmer organizations and crop value chains in the United States. 

Capacity Building (September-November, 2014): Post will send a scientist from the Mozambique Cotton Institute to Michigan State University to be trained on BT Cotton under the Borlaug Fellowship program. 

Capacity Building (September, 2014): A technician from the Ministry of Science and Technology will attend a Biosafety Training Course at the Michigan State University. 

(b) STRATEGIES AND NEEDS 

FAS/Pretoria’s short term goals for biotechnology in Mozambique include: 

• To seek opportunities for additional resources through the State EB biotech program, EMP funding, and other available funding sources to raise awareness of the benefits of biotechnology and the development of science-based regulatory systems in Mozambique. 

• Collaborate with other like-minded countries such as Brazil, Argentina, and South Africa on outreach and training activities. 

• To facilitate the advancement of biotech cotton and drought-tolerant corn field trials in Mozambique. 

Additionally, outreach to small scale farmers on the benefits of biotechnology should also be a focus. Expanding this outreach to include consumer groups and the general public could achieve greater understanding and acceptance of biotechnology