In September, the Ministry of Agriculture adopted a new pest list , under which a phytosanitary certificate need to state that the shipments are free from those pests, or be subjected to quarantine measures. This measure applies to all shipments of apples that come from abroad. The practice is apparently a sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measure, but the implicit objective is a technical barrier to trade (TBT) as its timing makes it obvious that the purpose is to protect the local apple industry. 

Nevertheless, the burden will fall on EU suppliers, who use their competitive advantage of geographical proximity to capture the bulk of the market. Under this measure, they will need to spend more time on costly customs bonds while their product is under quarantine. On the other hand, U.S. apples will spend most of the quarantine period en route by sea